Tuesday, March 30, 2010
Nizam-ul-Mulk Asaf Jah I (1724-48)
(a) The original name of founder of this autonomous state of Hyderabad was Chinqilich Khan. Mughal Emperor, "Farrukh Siyar", while appointing him as the Viceroy of Deccan in 1713, conferred on him the title of "Nizam-ul-Mulk" and the Nizam occupied this post of Viceroy till 1715. He again served as the Viceroy of the Deccan for a second term between 1720 and 1722. He was then appointed as the Wazir (Prime Minister) of the Mughal Empire in 1722 by Emperor Muhammed Shah. But in 1724 he got disgusted with the Mughal court politics and marched off to the Deccan without even waiting for the Emperor's permission.
(b) After reaching Deccan, Nizam-ul-Mulk founded the autonomous state of Hyderabad in 1724. The Mughal Emperor, unable to punish the Nizam, confirmed him as the Viceroy of Deccan and granted him the second title of "Asaf jah" in 1725. The Nizams as well his successors were practically independent of the Mughal Emperor, though they continued to recognise the latter as their sovereign.
(c) The Nizam undertook various reforms to stabilise himself as well as the newly founded state. To begin with he revived agriculture and industry by giving incentives to farmers and artisans: Secondly, he established peace and order by suppressing all disaffected nobles and putting down theft and robbery. Thirdly, he also made several efforts to stop the plundering raids of the Marathas. And when he failed in this, he bought peace with them by signing the Treaties of Mungishiregaum (1728), Warna (1731) and Durai-Sarai (1738).
On all time richest people on earth Osman Ali Khan, Asaf Jah VII stood 5th in the world. Peak wealth: $210.8 billion. Age at peak wealth: 50, ASAF JAH VII (whose given name was Osman Ali Khan Bahadur) was the last Nizam or ruler of the Princely State of Hyderabad and Berar, before it was annexed by Indian Union in 1948.
By most accounts, "His Exalted Highness" the Nizam of Hyderabad was a benevolent ruler who promoted education, science and development. He spent about one-tenth of his Principality's budget on education, and even made primary education compulsory and free for the poor. In his 37-year rule, Hyderabad witnessed the introduction of electricity, railways, roads, and other development projects.
In 1937, Asaf Jah VII was on the cover of Time Magazine, labeled as the richest man in the world.